Thursday, September 3, 2020
executing capital punishment articles The execution of the death penalty in the United States today has become a sometimes utilized intends to stop wrongdoing. Capital punishment was set up so as to rebuff the individuals who are liable and to debilitate the individuals who examine carrying out grievous wrongdoings from doing as such. Society has threw in the towel from its exceptionally steady position on capital punishment since being flooded with publicity that says the death penalty is pitiless and irregular. The vast majority of the violations submitted by the individuals who face execution can be recorded as either merciless or bizarre, however. Through breaking down the viability of prevention, the inadequacy of life sentences, and the ethical quality of the death penalty, the essentialness of capital punishment can be appeared. Prevention alludes to the proposal that executing killers will diminish the pace of manslaughters by causing potential killers not to submit murder because of a paranoid fear of being executed themselves. The dread of discipline is sufficient to discourage numerous individuals from taking extraordinary activities. Since 1990, Harris County, a solitary province in Texas has had a bigger number of executions than some other region in any state in the United States, as indicated by David Bragdon, a Government/Pre-law major from North Carolina. During the period somewhere in the range of 1990 and 1995, Harris County has had a forty-eight percent drop in wrongdoing, the best decline in the United States. In Harris County, the most noteworthy manslaughter rate was in 1981, one year before capital punishment was restored in Texas. This straightforwardly shows the usage of capital punishment associates with a drop in the manslaughter rate(Guernsey,9). Prevention is viable when appropriately set up as a regular occurrence. Numerous individuals have contended that the expense of executing a detainee is higher than keeping him imprisoned forever. The yearly expense of imprisonment is $40,000 to $50,000 per year for detainees who are serving life terms without parole(Wekesser,2). Executing a detainee is considerably more expense ... <!
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Would it be advisable for us to or Should We Not Satisfy Our Desires? by Expert Prof. Richardson | 23 Dec 2016 Since days of yore, wants have been one of the most impressive normal powers which move people conduct, inspiration, and characters. Regardless of whether material, immaterial, profound, or enthusiastic, it appears that longing has always been a piece of human instinct, and it additionally seems, by all accounts, to be a marvel which will in general be unavoidable and unpreventable in people groups lives. Subsequently, as individuals continue with their own undertakings and motivation ordinary, they may recognize the truth that wants to be sure fill in as a main thrust in these regular issues. Thus, want has been examined bantered over during the early time of Aristotle. Need paper test on Would it be advisable for us to or Should We Not Satisfy Our Desires? subject? We will compose a custom paper test explicitly for you Continue Understudies Often Tell Us: Who needs to compose task for me? Exposition essayists suggest: Modest Essay Writing Service Paper Writers For Hire Who Are You Writing Assignment Essay Writing Company Reviews During this period, most scholars concur that an inpiduals ability is made out of three angles, to be specific, the proportion (mind), the will (want), and the spirit (Hartono). Henceforth, this shows since the soonest times, want have been perceived to be a solid power which enormously influences a people limit and fitness. In any case, in the contemporary days, apparently the word want has been labeled with different implications. Some may connect with superfluous delight chasing, while some may contend that it is a need for people to fulfill their wants. Along these lines, this paper will demonstrate and bolster the way that as human with a characteristic will and propensity to need things, wants should hence be fulfilled well to accomplish ones ideal limit as a person. Speculations, Philosophies, and Supporting Thoughts on Desire Satisfaction Sigmund Freud and His Theories on Sexual Desires Throughout the years, the idea and nature of human want have been deliberately examined and have been bantered over by various thinkers and other incredible personalities in brain science and humanism, bringing about various implications about the truth of human want. Therefore, many are constantly being bewildered whether wants are intended to be fulfilled or to turn out to be simply allurements and difficulties. Sigmund Freud has been a famous personality in the investigation of human want as he got known by his dubious misogynist belief systems. Want for Freud is for the most part connected with sexual drive which goes about as the chief main thrust for adults as well as for youngsters. Freud accepts that since birth, the fulfillment of all the pleasurable sensations from the skin drives an individual, guarantees an ideal social and passionate turn of events, and forestalls future mental emergencies like the Oedipal emergency and the Electra complex. Freud named the primary psychosexual stage as the oral stage which is experienced by youngsters year and a half and underneath. In this stage, the focal point of joy is the mouth which can be seen by the continuous desire of the child to suck everything that the individual in question holds. The subsequent stage is the butt-centric stage which, from its name, in fact centers around the joy got from the rear-end. This is typically seen in youngsters year and a half to 4 years old. Next is the phallic stage. In this level, four to multi year-old kids get joy predominantly from their genitalia. Consequently, as Freud expressed, masturbation can be seen as regular practice among kids that fall on this age run. The dormant stage, then again, relates a phase wherein most sexual wants are being curbed in view of the weight from school and the general public. In this stage, kids from seven to twelve years old can be seen to be repressed and quiet. The last stage is known as the genital stage which starts at adolescence and stretches out until adulthood. During this stage, the focal point of delight is sex itself. Freud contends that the craving for sex in this stage is regular and unavoidable. He likewise stresses that generally social, passionate, and personality emergencies like homosexuality and sexual obsession root from this phase when the longing will in general be underestimated or curbed (Boeree). This hypothesis of Freud underpins the possibility that wants have that characteristic inclinations and impacts of individuals. Despite the fact that his hypothesis manages just a single sort of want which is that of the sexual urges, it very well examines how normal and natural wants are to human and that it is so important to fulfill these wants so as to keep away from social, mental, and personality emergencies later on in a people life. Aristippus Hedonism Beside this hypothesis, Hedonism, which truly discusses the significance of fulfilling ones wants, adds to the possibility that craving fulfillment assumes a fundamental job in causing an individual to understand their ideal capacities and potential. Aristippus of Cyrene is the dad of Hedonism. He accepts that beside the erotic joy, higher types of joy, for example, mental delights, local love, fellowship, and good happiness are additionally critical to be fulfilled (Fox). His hypothesis likewise clarifies that fulfillment of wants prompts a charming standpoint and mentality throughout everyday life. Along these lines, the sort of want that this hypothesis centers around is that of the inherent want which is the deepest want an individual has (Heathwood 540). Characteristic wants are those wants upheld by different wants and are normally easier. As it were, characteristic wants are the keep going ones in the long chain and relapse of wants (Irvine 55). Speculations, Philosophies, and Thoughts Against Desire Satisfaction Be that as it may, there are pundits who challenge want satisfactionism by saying that this hypothesis relies upon a bogus mental investigation as it depends on the way that delight is the main thought process of activity. Additionally, pundits contend that craving satisfactionism incites narrow-mindedness and lets individuals go amiss from benevolent and liberality. Additionally a great deal of pundits recommend that debauchery or want satisfactionism prompts an excessive amount of egocentrism as in it permits an inpidual to spend too much and fulfill him/her with all the common and realist wants which s/he needs. Beside this, want fulfillment was likewise labeled to infer progressively superfluous wants, for example, extravagances and indecencies since it advices the fulfillment of all wants a man could have even those which s/he may not know to be terrible for him/her. The Stance The facts demonstrate that the satisfaction or satisfaction of ones want isn't the sole main impetus of inpiduals. In any case, it is one of the significant main thrusts which push individuals to have a positive and charming standpoint about existence. Considering the previously mentioned musings, apparently wants are not generally about the exotic and the self-pleasuring sort of wants. Wants all in all, may it be the longing to transform somebody elses conduct, want to improve the world a spot, or the various practical and even the unreasonable wants powers individuals to try sincerely and live for the satisfaction of such wants. A few people may feel that needing increasingly in the wake of satisfying a craving prompts a risky circumstance of non-satisfaction. They may need increasingly more after they satisfy a craving they recently needed seriously. This surely is unavoidable for individuals since they would consistently develop with growing needs as their general surroundings creates and advances too. The negative implication about wants and want fulfillment can be a lot of ascribed to the negative impression of preservationist society to arousing and sexual wants. As this sort of want is moderately sensationalized and questionable in the contemporary occasions, individuals will in general structure the feeling that wants are basically about sexual dreams and urges that are unethical for individuals to ache for and satisfy again and again. Nonetheless, as reality nibbles, human wants are not about sexual dreams and longings. By and large, wants are the common main thrusts and inspirations which prop individuals up. These are actually the things that individuals are propelled to gain to keep a wonderful mentality throughout everyday life. Notwithstanding fulfilling ones wants, there would not be an Albert Einstein, Alexander Grahambell, and progressively effective characters today (Kavanagh). In the event that individuals would need to stifle wants and shield themselves from fulfilling them, at that point satisfaction and joy would doubtlessly be difficult to accomplish. As it shows up, wants originate from the deceptions and pictures of incredible and perfect things individuals need to satisfy to remunerate their faculties, inclinations, and requirements. Maybe, these wants are the value individuals need to pay for their capacity of excusing or separating what is excellent from appalling, what is rich from straightforward, and what is amazing from weak. This capacity likewise enables them to make a psychological picture of the ideal life and the ideal things which they would in the end will in general want. Without a doubt, needing and wanting wonderful and perfect things and sensation in life accompany the humankinds ground-breaking faculties and capacity to recognize what is alluring from not. Maybe, having such powerful urges originates from the endowment of ground-breaking human awareness which empowers people to dream and need (McCormick). As inescapable as the propensity of craving, the need to fulfill such wants gives off an impression of being as unavoidable. It is surely a characteristic requirement for individuals to fulfill their wants as these wants have been demonstrated common and inborn as a human propensity. Individuals should likewise not legitimize or excuse wants and their purposes behind wants are not subjective musings; these are emotions which drive the brains and the perspective of individuals. In this manner, as feelings, wants are not the same as the devices of perceptions. These thi
Friday, August 21, 2020
Transport Security Administration (TSA) - Essay Example sm, the barrier group couldn't bear to watch the staggering impacts of such lawbreakers taking ruinous activities on guiltless individuals and the American economy by and by. The 2001 assault executed through captured airplanes by the psychological oppressors left more than 3,000 individuals dead, and thousands more with genuine wounds, other than the obliteration of billions of property in the wrongdoing occasion. The chain of occasions in the different states focused on, for example, New York, Pennsylvania and Washington DC, prompted reexamining of the government security. Working near the DHS, TSA was shaped and has been controlling peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s development into and out of the United States; all the more in this way, it has submitted itself in reinforcing the vehicle framework and making sure about business exercises for AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing throughout the previous 13 years, and ideally into the future (TSA, tsa.gov). In spite of the fact that itÃ¢â¬â¢s very slanted on the aeronautics security, there has been expanding consideration on the expressways, metros and other section and leave terminals utilized in transportation. Postulation: The propriety of the safety efforts and their viability in guaranteeing security are easy to refute since the TSA started activity. In spite of the fact that the transportation framework assaults and violations have declined, issues of bias regarding appearance, race, culture and different factors by TSA officials implementing security at section and leave focuses in the United States have been raised. This doesn't go unnoticed and would influence the United States development to affect on the travel industry and its outside relations. Since 2001, the USA government has put intensely in safety efforts by the TSA, which has empowered oversight of security through its officials on the ground, their exercises and steady gear, and the apparatus they use. It is worth to value the TSA activities for its adjustment to the rising security dangers. While fear mongers look for elective approaches to execute their tasks, TSA has attached its measures through conveyed
Monday, June 8, 2020
Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem: Foodborne Illness in the US (Research Paper Sample) Content: Research on Foodborne Illness in the USNameInstitutionResearch on Foodborne Illness in the USIntroductionFoodborne disease has become a common health concern in the United States. In the contemporary United States, this illness is reported to have a yearly prevalence of approximately 9.4 million people. Consequently, over 1200 individuals succumb to this illness each year (Frias, 2012). Although studies have not categorized the prevalence of foodborne illness on the basis of income, race and ethnicity, it has been floated that this problem is more prevalent among low income earners. Overtime, there have been increased evidences showing that the illness is more common among minority groups in the US. Such high incidence of foodborne disease among low income earners and minority groups is estimated to result from poor levels of food services and improper retailing among others (Thorpe et al, 2013). Therefore, this paper explores foodborne illness (E. coli) as an epidemi ological problem among the population in the United States. Disease BackgroundBy definition, foodborne illness is a disease that infects an individual as a result of drinking or eating contaminated food that. Amazingly, this illness has been found to be linked with over two hundred pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, toxins and parasites (Young Waddell, 2016). Some of the common bacteria causing foodborne illness include E. coli, Vibrio spp, Shigella spp, Listeria Monocytognes and Yersinia spp. Parasites causing foodborne disease include Entamoeba histolytica, Toxoplasma caris, Giardia lamblia, Trichinella aspiralis, and Cyclospora spp among others. Toxins that cause foodborne include Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringes and Straphylococcus aureas (Ebel et al., 2016).Symptoms of foodborne illness include vomiting and bloody diarrhea which can persist for up to seven days. Other symptoms include fever, backaches, nausea, fatigue and cramps. Noteworthy, what is commonly referred to as stomach flu can sometimes be a serious symptom of foodborne disease. Foodborne illness has an incubation period of not more than seven days. Studies have shown that raw foods including animal products such as raw eggs, raw meat and unpasteurized milk are good candidates for E.coli. Furthermore, vegetables and fruits are also prone to get contaminated when washed with dirty water or during preparation. Moreover, this illness can be spread when a healthy individual consumes raw foods that have been touched by an infected person (Painter et al, 2013). In effect, this disease has become an epidemiological problem in the United States. Reports and studies on E.coli such as those done by the Centre of Disease Control (CDC) indicate that the disease is prevalent and has caused many cases of hospitalization and deaths in the US (Painter et al, 2013). The tables below provide the incidence of foodborne illness acquired both domestically and through other transmission routes. Table 1: Source. (Frias, 2012)Table 2: Source. (Frias, 2012)Apart from E. coli, there are other pathogens which cause foodborne illness leading to its high incidence in the US. Some of the major pathogens causing this illness domestically include Salmonella, Norovirus, Clostridium perfringes, Campylobacter spp, and streptococcus aureas (Painter et al, 2013). Tables below show estimated number sickness as caused by individual pathogens in the US. Table 1: Source. (Frias, 2012) Table 2: Source (Frias, 2012)Review of Current SurveillanceA number of foodborne illness cases in the US are still going unreported. However, the disease is reported to be more prevalent among minor groups such the poor in the United States (Henao et al, 2015). One thing that has greatly hindered investigation on the outbreak of foodborne disease in the US is absence of traceable contaminated foods. Surveillance is an appropriate and organized collection of data concerning epidemiological problem within a definite population. This process is done differently to various countries and depends on resource availability such as manpower, technical experts, infrastructure as well as the economic status of the country. The major surveillance methods used in the United States include the FoodNet and the routinely national surveillance which uses several illustrations (Young Waddell, 2016). Based on the surveill...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The idea of Emergency Contraception is not a new to society, however it is still igniting many debates just as it did when it was first introduced to the United States. Emergency contraception continues to be a highly emotional and controversial issue, both for advocates who believe EC will lower the number of unintended pregnancies and abortions, and for opponents who believe that using EC amounts to an abortion. The controversy fueling this debate centers around one of the ways that emergency contraception works. Emergency contraception can prevent or delay ovulation, affect the movement of the egg or sperm: making them less likely to meet, it can also interfere with the fertilization process and prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some argue that a girl can get an abortion without parental notification in some states, so why not Plan B. While parents would like their children to wait as long as possible to begin having sex, the reality is that teens are having sex much younger than many parents think. Some teens, or preteens, begin having sex or engaging in sexual behavior in junior high. By the time they are seniors in high school, an estimated 65 percent of teens have had sex, according to the Center for Disease Control and PreventionÃ¢â¬â¢s Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007. (Dawn, 2009). Unfortunately, a percentage of those teens will become pregnant. After more than a decade and a half of decline (a 27 percent drop from 1991 to 2000), teen birth rates rose again in 2006, which was the last year for which data are available. It is still unclear on what caused teen birth rates to rise again, with supporters of abstinence-only sex education programs and contraception-based programs each blaming the other side for the increase. However, a 2007 study in the Journal of American Public Health attributed the trend in decreasing pregnancy rates to improved contraception use among teens during that time. (Anderson Orr, 2009 ). Providing information about contraception andShow MoreRelatedSelf Emergency Contraception Is a Right Women Should Have1318 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI will argue that pharmacists lack an absolute right to object the dispersal of emergency contraception. Further, I will argue that the reasons offered for refusals regarding emergency contraception by pharmacists are not reasonable, even given their moral reservations, providers have a professional ethical obligation to dispense emergency conception. The refusal to sell emergency contraception by pharmacists ultimately infringes on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to exercise autonomy over their reproductive futureRead More Cause and Effect Essay - Emergency Contraception Causes Abortion952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmergency Contraception Causes Abortion Ã Ã Ã Ã Brown University associate professor of medicine, Ralph Miech, M.D., Ph.D., stated the abortive nature of EC in the Providence Journal on August 3, 1998: This type of pill causes an abortion. From a pharmacologic perspective, this type of pill should be called an abortion-after pill. Ã The question must be asked: How is this contraception? Women are being falsely led to believe that these pills are contraceptive in nature. But oneRead More Emergency Contraception Essay677 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEmergency Contraception There are many myths surrounding the use of emergency contraception. The question of what it is and when to use it is just a fraction of the controversy surrounding this arguably new practice. Emergency contraception is a method of preventing pregnancy after the act of unprotected sexual intercourse. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. However, emergency contraception can not be obtained without a prescription. Why does the US government not trustRead MoreWhy Do We Continue to Debate the Use of Contraception Essay1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesContraception is it right or wrong and are you to young to decide for yourself? Recently we have been hearing a lot about Contraception ad if it is right or wrong and who gets to decide. The name of the Scholarly article that I chose to write about is, (Simonds Ellertson, 2004, p. 1285-1297) Emergency Contraception and Morality reflections of health care workers and clients. In the United States our government goes back and forth between trying to be conservative and trying to separate personalRead MoreEthical Considerations Project Essay610 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesConsiderations I believe the ethical considerations in Brownfield v. Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital is for all hospitals to provide all information and access to emergency contraceptives to sexual assault and rape victims. In the defense of Brownfield, emergency contraceptives, Plan B, and oral synthetic hormones is the most common type of emergency contraceptives that should have been disclosed to her upon her request. These contraceptives are often called the morning after pill or Plan B. Some legalRead MoreEthics Paper on Healthcare Policy645 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesissue? The ethical considerations of this issue, is the responsibility of the hospital to provide all the relevant information concerning access to emergency contraceptives, for rape and sexual assault victims. BrownfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s defense supports the idea that emergency contraceptives, Plan B, and oral synthetic hormones are the most common form of emergency contraceptives, and this information must be given to the victim upon her request. These contraceptives are called the Ã¢â¬Å"morning after pill or planRead MoreContraception Is An Entity That Many People Take For Granted1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesContraception is an entity that many people take for granted. In the past, women did not have any access to contraceptives because they did not exist at the time. As time passed, the thought of contraceptives began to bloom, but the idea was thought to be Ã¢â¬Å"obscene.Ã¢â¬ This was in a time where women had very few rights, and one of the rights they were forbidden to have was the righ t to have access to contraceptives and be active in the planning of their families and fertility. Whether in a relationshipRead MoreThe Morning After Pill Essay654 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageslife has begun, by preventing ovulation or implantation of a fertilized egg. The morning pills are a form of abortion. Just because the drug is legal doesnt men county health officials must provide it. Taxpayer money shouldnt be used for emergency contraception. The morning after pill is great in some ways but what about those who cant afford it or just cant stand giving up something they are responsible for. The morning after pill may be a good idea to some individuals but everyone is responsibleRead MoreContraception Insurance Mandate: The Religious Exemption Debate1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaccessible and affordable to millions of Americans (National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Center, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Among the many firsts: employers that offer health insurance must cover certain preventative measures for women, including contraceptionÃ¢â¬ (Corbin 2013, p. 1470). This requirement has been coined the Ã¢â¬Å"contraception mandateÃ¢â¬ and has generated an uproar among many Catholic employers in the US (Corbin 2013, p. 1470); they believe it is in violation of their basic rights of religious freedom and freedom of speech to beRead MoreWe Live A Democracy?1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgetting pregnant reason being why some religious companies do not support the coverage of these contraceptives. A sense of man playing God and the intentional disregard of the science spectrum. The employers think that certain forms of contraception (emergency contraception pills and intrauterine devices) cause abortions. Dr. Jeanne A. Conry and Dr. Nancy L. Stanwood. Those type of views, makes the decision of covering contraceptives an issue throughout the nation. Outdated views and inaccurate knowledge
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Pollution has been a growing problem since the rapid evolution of technology after the Industrial Revolution, which contaminated Earth with its byproducts of harmful chemicals and an ever growing pile of trash. From harmful chemicals in the air to plastic floating in the ocean, pollution has contaminated the very world we have been living in, slowly creating a bleak future for the new generations to come. I was a young child, unaware of the danger of just breathing the air and how dirty the world has become over the last few hundred years. Eventually, a life-threatening event changed that view forever and urged me to take a stance on the topic of pollution, changing my views and having a huge impact on my future. Before long, I had becomeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEQghbA3pLM [insert video here] Around fifth grade, I learned about climate change and its relation to pollution from school and research online. Climate change is a change in the weather and temperature around the world that lasts for a period of time. It affects many species and can even result mass extinctions, extinctions of many species around the same time. This discovery worried me, and the anxiety grew into trying to aid in the fight against pollution to prevent climate change from getting out of control and destroying the delicate ecosystems on Earth. As a result, I started to follow the news about climate change by aiding in the prevention of pollution, which is the main cause of global warming and global cooling, the effects of climate change, in different parts of the world. The predicted change in climate at that time scared me due to the unpredictable weather and possible harm it would bring to many of the animals of the world, creatures that I cared deeply about and wanted to desperately protect beca use of my previous dream of becoming a veterinarian, also known as an animal doctor. To this day, we have already lost many species in their fight to survive the drastic climate changes.
Question: Describe about the Leadership and Governance for Southwest Airlines. Answer: Southwest Airlines is an established company that has able to attain a leadership position in the highly competitive market. High level planning is difficult and dangerous for major corporate entities. The sheer size of the organization and numbers of variables to be evaluated makes planning demanding and punishes poor groundwork. The danger of becoming overconfident during periods of prosperity and growth can inhibit contingency planning. Also, the best strategic plans need tactics to implement them before they can be successful (Daft, 2013). Heskett Sasser give an example of strategic planning over time with their case study of Southwest Airlines (2013). From the beginning as a small company to their dominance of the US domestic airline market 30 years later the authors track how they maintained their vision and transformed their strategy to remain distinctive while they experienced year-over-year growth. Based on the case study the major challenges of strategic planning, especial ly for large, complex organizations like Southwest airlines include increasing competition from other organizations, this led to the sale of a plane to cover costs in the first year (Heskett Sasser, 2013). There were also challenges with security as a result of 9/11, cost reduction, the status quo and technology (Heskett Sasser, 2013). At any point of time, there would be number of projects running for Southwest Airlines. It is important that the leaders and the managers of Southwest Airlines should have a deep understanding of different projects in the organization. The leaders would have a key role to take the organization forward and it can happen only when the company has effective governance structure in place (Baillien, 2009). The key elements of leadership and governance for Southwest Airlines can be shown as: Current project governance and leadership approaches The leaders of Southwest Airlines have a project governance structure to support strategic planning in the organization. Strategic planning is crucial to organizational development and long-term success. It refers to the ability to see the bigger picture and strategize a plan that takes into consideration external factors, environmental factors and focuses on the organizations ability to achieve their goals. When strategizing, the focus is largely on the value that can be offered to the customer (Daft, 2013). There are three levels of strategic planning that when broken down will assist individuals focus where they are and where their time and efforts are most effective: Corporate level- What business are we in? Business level How do we compete? Functional level- How can we support the business level strategic plan? New governance and Leadership approaches The new governance and leadership approaches for Southwest Airlines can be discussed as below: Board Level Zilberg (2013) suggest Boards serve a dual function; setting policy and providing leadership with flexibility for the operations of an organization. Moreover, Zilberg (2013) suggest Boards have the final and ultimate authority in respect to decision-making for all aspects of the organization. Kiel and Nicholson (2005) use the of four broad governance categories to illustrate why Enron and Hollinger International failed; strategic failure; control failure; ethical failure; interpersonal relationship failures. Moreover, Kiel and Nicholson (2005) suggest Board evaluations provide a process to identify concerns prior to reaching a crisis point for the purpose of promoting discussions and possible resolutions where having the proper framework will be imperative within complex environments. Downe, Cowell, and Morgan, (2016) observed when evaluating failure, the mechanisms for evaluating discipline disappeared when organizations had a large number of independent councilors further noting the failure to act on issues can become problematic thus forcing organizations to promote the presence of sub-climates and weakening the ethical climate overall within the organization. Portfolio management According to Aileron (2016), portfolio management is the process of looking at all of the things an organization could do and narrowing it down to what could be done successfully assisting in the determination of where to allocate resources, time, capital. The articles describes five key areas to focus on when strategically planning in any organization: Determine where you are- to gain an accurate picture of where your organization is actually at it is helpful to bring in an outside consultant that will provide an honest view point of where the organization is compared to where you thought it was or would want it to be (Kuvaas, 2010). Identify what is really important- utilizing the mission and the vision of the organization determine where you are going and if you are truly focused on the areas that were once identified as crucial and meaningful. Define what you must achieve- clearly identify objects and focus on them in the priority determined. Determine who is accountable- the mission, vision, objectives and plans are in place and now it is time to allocate resources, set clear expectations, and ensure individuals are held to their expectations. Review, review, review- hold regular meetings to ensure the plan stays the course and the objectives are still being met as determined previously. The review period is never over (Aileron, 2016). Program Management It can be said that Program management is key to success. The worst thing that you can do is to make spur of the moment decisions. Careful plan keeps you from avoiding costly mistakes. SWA (Southwest Airlines) had a vision, which paid off. At a time when airlines were going out of business, they took a chance by investing in an idea that was unique to the airline industry. In my opinion, SWA (Southwest Airlines) stands above other airlines because of their willingness to cut their prices, and remain simple. In value proposition element many factors can be seen in this case: the airline emphasized on recruiting agents and staff with positive personalities. Also, it focused on a culture Committee, took into consideration all of the employees ideas, and engaged in teamwork commitments (Heskett Sasser, 2013). One of the Value proposition elements is Sold 737 Boeing Jets at remarkably below asking price, as a way to start a bold business relationships between Boeing and SWA (Heskett Sas ser, 2013). One of the Destination point element is The 10 minute turnaround time from gate arrival at the gate to push back was barely one-fifth the average of competitors minimizing the turnaround time (Heskett Sasser, 2013). Linking of corporate and project strategies Many factors challenged the implementation of the strategic planning process, such as increase competition from other airline due to the change in market, providing lower fare prices, rise in the cost, and many changes in the customers requests and accommodations. The company wasnt able to maintain the 10 mn turnaround, due to the increase in seat and suitcases. Multiple outside factors that challenged portfolio and program management such as selling one of the organizations in one site in order to continue to stay in business, and a four-year lawsuit brought by competitors in order to prevent the company from operating in Texas. Another factor that most likely affected the rest of the airlines was cost reduction after 9/11 (Heskett Sasser, 2013). Governance of individual projects According to Taugher (2009) and Olsen (2009), businesses should devise five to six objectives and create business strategies to reach these goals. They should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, timely) and the goals should be targeted toward the level of involvement. More specifically, the actions or behaviors to be implemented or changed should be implemented at the level of the organization, the department, or even the individual accordingly. Larger organizations have a bigger challenge because there are usually multiple locations, departments, and en enormous amount of staff. Creating sub groups or committees can help to better define the current strengths and weaknesses as well as areas for opportunity or threats. In these cases, leaders are defined to help assess issues and then carry information down the line to the end user individuals. The beginning of any good company is the vision of what is possible and to see opportunities that are there and have the skills and equipment to take advantage of the situation in a timely fashion (Thomas, 2012). At the time Southwest Airlines started their vision was clear. One of the excellent points is that leaders may sometimes fail to support their own strategies. The leaders and managers of Southwest Airlines have been using LEAN rollouts where senior leaders have proclaimed that they are going to become a LEAN organization. Strategy and relationship with different stakeholders A strategic plan must contain several key elements. The plan must include clear communication of the strategy. A strategic planning task force consisting of members of the organizations leaders and key business areas and departments to ensure high level input and buy in. The strategic plan must include a vision to the future. The organizations mission statement of who they are and what they are in the market. The plan should include a statement of the organizations values as a guideline of the behavior that is acceptable for staff. Goals and objectives that are clear and measurable (Carrillo, 2005). Be sure to assign specific tasks to the organized groups. These tasks should be clear, specific, and measurable and time sensitive for completion. Once the plan has been constructed and outlined, an implementing strategy needs to be formulated. The implementing strategy pulls all of the pieces of the plan together. An finally, a system of monitoring all of the ongoing tasks and deadlines of the plan. The monitoring and analysis of the plans is key to the success. Changes and adjustments may be needed or problem solving for potential or realized problems can be completed. Leadership Lack of leadership can be a reason for organizations to collapse. The leaders of Southwest Airlines have realized that when there is lack of leadership support, any strategic plan will fail. Leaders have to show up at the right time and engage with the right people and most importantly continue to convey the vision, mission and values of the organization. The leaders have to ensure that they are not too ambitious. It would be correct to say that having too many goals will make it hard to focus on main objectives (Dierendonck, 2015). Failure to integrate the plan into the culture, operations, and budget- if the company objectives are somehow separated from the daily life, it makes it hard to sell the mission, vision and values. Lack of momentum in the short term- planning process should create momentum by having shorter time frames during which assessments and reassessments needs and corrections made. Failure to do so will lead to loss of enthusiasm. One major challenge to a major corporation is choosing the best strategic plan. There are many plans to consider. Each plan takes into consideration many aspects of the new vision, the leadership involved, the cost, focus and environment (Daft, 2013). Choosing the wrong strategy can be disastrous for the corporation that attempts to apply it to their business plan. The loss of time and money can have such a negative effect that the corporation may never recover. The corporations leaders must have an accurate account of the vision, the financial stability, the market in which they are involved, trends and changes, innovations. Choosing the best strategic plan to implement can be a pivotal decision for any corporation or leader. The solvency of the entire corporation may depend on the outcome (Phelps, 2007). Self Reflection and Analysis In the case study the top company executives had a vision of what they wanted to achieve, they had a mission where they wanted the company to be who they wanted to serve and they planned what kind of services they wanted to offer. They then created a corporate culture that served the company very well and continues to serve it (Smith, 2008). Hiring of the people with great positive personalities, modeled that culture of a servant heart with fun LUVing attitude. Communication is utilized very well from creating the corporate culture, to marketing to even the corporate events and every step of the planning. In the case study we see the executives plan, assess and evaluate the process like when they have to change existing policy and come up with new policy such as bags fly free and expanding flights into other key cities. I believe the largest issue in large or small organizations is communication. They seem to treat information like the CIA or FBI, a need to know bases but everyone should really know what is going with the organization and how it will affect their job. If communication were open and announced employees would feel they are of value and their ideas and thoughts matter. I can say that the leaders should also develop the art of conflict management within the organization. I have learned that the organizations should not try to avoid the conflicts. In fact, organizations and leaders should confront the conflict to get the best in the difficult situations. It is also important for people to use the negotiation skills to resolve the conflict. 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